Perchlorate salts are man-made compounds used as combustion accelerants, primarily in solid-fueled rockets and missiles. It can also be found in some munitions, fireworks, road flares and is even thought to exist naturally in some nitrate-based fertilizer products. The presence of perchlorate salts in wells and drinking water sources has been linked to hormonal balances and impedes human reproduction and development.
Manufacturing waste and improper disposal of perchlorate-containing compounds are increasingly being found in groundwater and local drinking water wells where these conditions exist.
The US Environmental Protection Agency, federal agencies and local governments are currently assessing the potential human health risks posed by perchlorate exposure. Currently, there are no enforceable perchlorate safety standards, however, a few US states have adopted perchlorate actionable levels, among them CA and MA. Perchlorate is one of a newly recognized group of toxins called endocrine disrupters, which can alter hormonal balances and impede human reproduction and development.
The EPA’s protective health level for perchlorate in drinking water is a dose estimate of less than 1 part per billion (ppb). Many perchlorate plumes in the United States, including the Colorado River, are believed to be in the range between four and 100 ppb. It is estimated that perchlorate contamination occurs in groundwater, drinking water sources in at least 22 US states and has been found in many nutritionally important foods such as milk, lettuce and other leafy green vegetables.
Ion exchange is the most frequently used treatment technology for perchlorate removal. This technology removes the perchlorate ions from the aqueous phase by replacing them with the anion present in the ion exchange resin. As contaminated water is passed through the resin, contaminant ions are exchanged for other ions such as chlorides or hydroxides in the resin.
Siemens Water Technologies offers both permanent, hard-piped and removable ion exchange treatment system options. With permanent systems, ion exchange resins must be periodically regenerated to remove the adsorbed contaminants and replenish the exchanged ions. Regeneration water and spent resin containing high levels of perchlorate would require additional treatment prior to disposal or reuse.
Our Potable ion exchange (PIX) service approach integrates equipment and service option combinations, thereby minimizing a plant’s capital investment and reduces overall space requirements. The system components are selected based upon available manpower, space limitations, access limitation and the specific reuse or discharge quality required. If needs change, our wastewater treatment systems are flexible – we can simply change the media types and/or tank size saving our clients significant capital expense.
Once exhausted, the exchange vessels are removed and replaced with fresh, potable-specific vessels and returned to service. Exhausted vessels are returned to our regional resin regeneration and handling facility where the resin is thermally destroyed and disposed of.
Potable ion exchange service (PIX) minimizes the need for handling and on-site storage of chemicals and wastes, thereby making your environment safer and reducing potential for recontamination. It also saves valuable manufacturing space while minimizing your maintenance and installation requirements.
In both cases, single-use, non-regenerable ion exchange resins may alternatively be used. These resins are removed when spent and thermally destroyed, thereby eliminating disposal liabilities of both the waste and wastewaters containing perchlorate.
Ion exchange is often preceded by treatments such as filtration and oil-water separation to remove organics, suspended solids, and other contaminants that can foul the resins and reduce their effectiveness.
Perchlorate Removal Technologies for Your Groundwater Remediation Applications
Ion Exchange Systems
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Systems
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Systems
To learn more about perchlorate removal from drinking water, please contact the Information Desk, Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time: 1.866.926.8420 or 1.724.772.1402 or email@example.com
Aerospace Manufacturer Utilizes Service Ion Exchange to Solve Perchlorate Contamination
Siemens Water Technologies worked with an east coast aerospace manufacturer to provide a solution to the perchlorate contamination affecting their facility's drinking water supply for on-site personnel. In response to new drinking water standards being established by the EPA, the customer sought a system which would treat the contamination and bring the perchlorate levels below its detection limit of 4 ppb.
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Replacement Ion Exchange Resins
Activated Carbon Media
Potable Ion Exchange (PIX) Service
Ion Exchange Resin Removes Perchlorate From 2000 gpm Drinking Water Supply in California
California Water Services Company Commences 10-Year Contract for Treatment of Nitrate and Perchlorate in Community Water System
MA Condominium Complex Becomes First Recognized Perchlorate Cleanup in the State
West Coast Aerospace Manufacturer Signs Agreement to Treat Perchlorate Contamination
California Community Chooses Siemens Water Technologies for Removal of Perchlorate From Primary Drinking Wells
One of the First Full-Scale Perchlorate Treatment Systems in a Northeast US Public Drinking Water Supply Installed by Siemens